Take-Off & Landing Distance Factors & Rwy Dimensions
|Take Off Distance Factors|
( To 50' )
|10% Increase in aircraft weight||20%||1.2|
|Increase 0f 1000ʹ in runway altitude||10%||1.1|
|Increase in temperature of 10°C||10%||1.1|
|Dry Grass - Up to 20cm (8 in)||20%||1.2|
|Wet Grass - Up to 20cm ( 8 in)||30%||1.35|
|Wet Paved Surface||0%||0|
|2% Uphill slope||10%||1.1|
|Tailwind component of 10% of landing speed||10%||1.1|
|Snow*||20%||At least 1.25|
|Addidtional safety factor||33%||1.33|
The Take Off Run Available (TORA)
The TORA is the length of the runway available for the take off ground run of the aircraft. This is usually the physical length of the runway.
The Emergency Distance (ED)
The ED is the length of the TORA plus the length of any stopway. A stopway is area at the end of the TORA prepared for an aircraft to stop on in the event of an abandoned take off. The ED is also known as the ACCELERATE – STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE.
|Landing Distance Factors|
( From 50' )
|10% Increase in aircraft weight||10%||1.1|
|Increase 0f 1000ʹ in runway altitude||5%||1.05|
|Increase in temperature of 10°C||5%||1.05|
|Dry Grass - Up to 20cm (8 in)||15%||1.15|
|Wet Grass - Up to 20cm ( 8 in)||35%||1.35|
|Wet Paved Surface||15%||1.15|
|2% downhill slope||10%||1.1|
|Tailwind component of 10% of landing speed||20%||1.2|
|Snow*||At Leats 25%||At least 1.25|
|Addidtional safety factor||43%||1.43|
The Take Off Distance Available (TODA)
The TODA is the TORA plus the length of any clearway. A clearway is an area over which an aircraft may take its initial climb (to 50ʹ in this instance). The TODA will not be more than 1.5 X TORA.
The Landing Distance Available (LDA)
The LDA is the length of the runway available for the ground of an aircraft landing. In all cases the landing distance required should never be greater than the landing distance available.